GIS users often use imagery to capture data. Most users are familiar with the spatial resolution of a sensor being defined by a measure called GSD (Ground Spatial Distance) or pixel size, eg. 50cm resolution is better than 1m resolution. 50cm is considered “higher resolution” as more detail is visible.
However there are other terms used in remote sensing that users should be aware of – specifically Recognition and Identification.
Detection = red object
Recognition = red vehicle
We cannot tell if this is a ute or sedan so Identification is not possible yet.
Identification = red sedan
As resolution improves cost goes up, so it is important to determine the purpose of the imagery Identification versus Recognition. In the above examples above do we need to count cars in the carpark (Recognition) or do we need to know what type of vehicle they are (Identification)?
Guidelines for Detection, Recognition and Identification
Detection = object size/3 = GSD – eg. car 5m/3 = 1.5 – 1.6m GSD required to Detect
Recognition = object size/10 = GSD – eg. car 5m/10 = 0.4 – 0.5m GSD required to recognise
Identification = object size/21 = GSD – eg. car 5m/21 = 0.1 – 0.2m GSD required to identify
What is linear referencing?
Linear referencing is a term thrown around in GIS, especially when describing (you guessed it) linear features.
Why use linear referencing?
Imagine whilst driving from Brisbane to Sydney (887 km) you had to describe a location as 31°36’52.3″S 152°43’40.1″E. Where would you think this was? Not easy without a map or GPS. What if the location was presented as 539 km from Brisbane? Without even looking at a map you know that this location is closer to Sydney than Brisbane. That is one example of why linear referencing is used: simplification of location description.
In the field, marker posts are often placed during the construction of lineal assets such as pipelines to enable field crews to identify locations quickly without GPS equipment or map reading. Power lines, railways, roads and pipelines are good examples of where linear referencing is traditionally used.
Linear referencing is the method of storing geographic locations by using relative positions along a measured linear feature. Distance measures are used to locate events along the line.
It is not a cousin of that Jason in the movie with a chainsaw!
What is it used for?
It is commonly used for transmitting data in web applications (eg. sending some data from the server to the client, so it can be displayed on a web page, or vice versa).
Why is this important to GIS?
GeoJson is an open standard format designed for representing simple geographical features (points, lines and polygons) along with their non spatial attributes.
GeoJson adds the Spatial Component (WHERE) to the Data Component (WHAT).
Chances are when you use your mobile phone to give you directions from A to B the data is being sent to your phone with GeoJson.
For more info, check out these links:
Mipela GeoSolutions has a team available for its clients to provide everyday GIS services. Clients such as Arrow Energy, ElectraNet, Jabree, METSERVE, Origin Energy and Viva Energy – to name a few – utilise these services.
Our GIS Specialists are able to assist with special project work, day to day mapping, large format map printing or backup support for overloaded GIS teams. We provide our clients with access to our job management tool (using X-Info Connect of course) to provide traceability and revision tracking for data and mapping jobs.
Some of the work this team does includes:
“Maps are a simple and efficient way to understand and communicate rapidly. Looking at a spreadsheet, we see rows and columns of data. Using charts and graphs, that data can be seen as a pattern. But when that same data is presented on a map, we suddenly have context for the information” – Jack Dangermond
Most of our readers will be familiar with the “Knowledge Pyramid” in one form or another. How does the Knowledge Pyramid apply to GIS and how does this relate to current trends in GIS?
GIS leverages data using spatial analysis to reveal information. Traditionally hardware and software constrained GIS implementation. With technology evolving rapidly the focus has shifted to the data, methods and procedures for analysis.
In the context of the Knowledge Pyramid above and GIS Trends:
Jack Dangermond lists Advanced Analytics and Big Data Analytics as two of his top 5 GIS trends. But what are other experts saying?
“Those organizations poised with know-how and budgets to harness the available data sources and this arsenal of tools will quickly dominate” – Chris Tucker, Chairman of the American Geographical Society and Founder of MapStory
“The GIS industry is constantly changing and evolving, however, there’s always been a heavy focus on data and data being ‘King,’ and I don’t see that changing – GIS is all about the data.” – Glenn Letham, Co-founder of GISUser
“The value of location-based data lies in its integration with other information. Whether you’re ordering a parcel online or navigating by voice to your nearest toy shop, as a user you don’t need to know that there’s a whole geospatial stack sitting underneath.” – Thierry Gregorius, Principal Strategic Consultant at Exprodat
Farming in Australia is in a state of turmoil. Many farmers are saddled with unsustainably high debts and are hit by unstable crop prices. Extreme weather events, from mass flooding in 2011 to intolerable droughts in 2014, exacerbate the difficulties faced by Australian farmers. By diversifying into solar generation, farmers can regulate their annual income and secure their finances.
Luminous Energy specialises in the planning and development of large-scale photovoltaic power plants, from initial site selection to connection and commissioning. They organise the development of solar farms, taking projects from initial site selection up to the point at which they are ready to be built.
Luminous recently sought assistance from Mipela with data management and mapping support to produce plans suitable for property agreements and site constraint mapping for three proposed solar farm sites in Queensland.
As part of the planning and development process, Luminous are required to submit site development plans to local council and plans to accompany ecological assessments to State and Federal Government. With the decision makers being geographically spread between Australia and the UK rapid revisions of mapping was required. Having someone experienced on the ground who can interpret requirements and turn the work around in a timely manner like Mipela has been critical to the project so far. This well managed revision process has resulted in better project delivery with quickly delivered result in an effective manner.
In 2015 Mipela provided ongoing GIS support to ERIAS Group during phase 1 of the Elk-Antelope LNG field (PRL-15) development (Social and Environmental Screening Studies). This task was as part of the feasibility study for the Papua LNG Project.
The Papua LNG Project is one of the few greenfield LNG projects worldwide.
ERIAS Group successfully bid to undertake phase 2 – Environmental Impact Study and Environmental, Social, Health Impact Assessment studies for Total, operator of the Papua LNG Project. These studies will allow Total to secure an Environmental Permit for the Project under the Environment Act 2000. The Mipela GeoSolutions GIS team have been engaged for the past twelve months supporting ERIAS Group mapping and spatial data for phase 2.
The following Milestones have been achieved during this period:
Key Project Infrastructure components
At Mipela GeoSolutions our team uses a variety of systems and procedures to maximise your GIS productivity. It is not just about the maps. It is about efficiently integrating or massaging the data you have into information products and solutions. These products inform decision making in your organisation.
Mipela have built systems and workflows around GIS Work Request systems, Data Management logs, QC Checklists, Job Tracking, Issue logs. These systems are integrated into our GIS Project Management adding value to your project by ensuring knowledge retention, Continuous Learning, Quality Control and Continuity Assurance.
Value is not just Cost and Time. What is your expectation about the Quality and Service you receive? Service is supported by Communication, which is fundamental to our Project Management system. Regular reporting, emails, phone conversations and meetings are all logged for the benefit of the entire team, not just the parties involved. Our Team approach means we work with you to achieve required outcomes.
The quality of the service we offer is managed by our QC System and peer review process. Our GIS team have degrees in Surveying, Engineering, Mathematics and the Spatial Sciences. This diverse qualification pool brings together different skill sets that are applied to problem solving and crafting your solution. The team is constantly looking to automate and optimise repetitive tasks. This results in faster, more consistent solutions.
Our team GIS Specialists are competent in the major Industry Desktop products as well as open-source tools. We are able to provide on site GIS support, but can also work remotely if required.
Our systems are under constant review. All lessons learned are fed back to improve the process and solutions we deliver.
Feedback and learning from experience are a crucial aspect of the GIS Services team. Using X-info Connect, issues and solutions are captured on the job.
This information is distributed via logs and reports to internal and external teams. Each piece of information is tracked from inception to resolution, including technical solutions and constraints.
Information distribution promotes the knowledge base of the team ensuring growth and development, whilst maximising knowledge retention and technical continuity assurance for our clients.
Increasing numbers of mobile devices and access to data mean that more and more people are using GIS on a daily basis.
MOBILE: Users are now familiar with Google Maps, searching online for static locations, hotels, shops, restaurants and dynamic locations, the nearest taxi, traffic incidents, fire alerts and radar storm path models/animations. There are user expectations for spatial solutions and GIS is just a tool running in the background making the magic happen.
The ‘CLOUD’ has also changed how we store spatial data and the tools we use to analyse it. Esri have tackled the “Cloud” aspect with ArcGIS Pro (software as a service) and ArcGIS Earth which will replace Google Earth Enterprise (scheduled release “later this year”). GIS\IT Managers need to understand different cloud offerings and terminology as it gains popularity:
• IaaS: Infrastructure as a Service, for example, Amazon, Rackspace or Macquarie Telecom. You acquire virtual machines to run your applications
• PaaS: Platform as a Service, for example, Esri ArcGIS.com. This is where you utilise a platform for sharing data, setting up web services
• SaaS: Software as a Service, for example, Xero where you use a payroll system and pay by the month, or for what you use.
DATA: The GIS Industry is expected to grow to a worldwide US$10.6 Billion by 2015. The largest demand is for GIS data, which has grown at a compound annual rate of 15.5% for the last eight years. Hitachi describe growing data volume trends from 300MB/km2 in the early 90’s, 25 GB/km2 in 2006 and PBs/km2 today. Sensors now capture full 3D data at rates of 8-20GB’s second!
Pitney-Bowes (PB) have responded to the need for interrogating large raster datasets introducing an innovative grid format called Multi-Resolution Raster (MRR).( MapInfo Pro 15.2 Available early November, 2015).
Accenture ‘2015 Oil and Gas Digital and Technology Trends Survey’ recently reported that mobility, infrastructure and collaboration technologies represent the biggest investment areas across the oil and gas industry, whilst Five of Gartner’s ‘Top 10 Technology Trends Impacting the Upstream Oil and Gas Industry’ (2015) relate to cloud, data & mobile solutions.
In conclusion GIS has moved beyond the ‘where’. Priority has shifted to ‘when’ and ‘how’. 4D GIS (XYZ and time) is the next major step. Add predictive modelling to the mix and proposed management actions (for example, timber harvesting and subsequent vegetation growth) can be introduced to look into the future. Tomorrow’s data structures will accommodate time as a stored dimension and completely change the conventional mapping paradigm. (A dynamic datum GDA2020 with time vectors, will be implemented by the ICSM
in Australia by 2023).
Murray & Associates (Qld) Pty Ltd is a team of professional Land and Engineering Surveyors and Town Planners. They demonstrate integrity and professional commitment to Queensland service provision and were established in 1946.
Working on the Origin Gas Pipeline Project, Murray were collecting data in the field but needed to transfer that data in accordance with the Origin Field Data Collection Dictionary. After consulting with Mipela GeoSolutions, a three stage approach was agreed to conduct a Feasibility Study, Develop a Model then Operationalising that Model. The model processed the source shapefiles and converted them into feature classes in a file geodatabase as provided by Origin.
The feature mapping file defined which shapefiles were to be transferred to the corresponding feature classes. It was configured for one to one mapping, many to one mapping, or one to many mapping. In addition to the feature mapping file, there was an attribute mapping file for every shapefile/feature class relationship.
Murray & Associates director, Andrew Campbell said, “Murray & Associates has been really happy with the communication and clear strategy presented by Mipela from the outset of this project. Mipela are a very professional company and we look forward to working with Mipela in the future.”
In a nutshell, Murray’s were satisfied because their business process was enhanced and they were able to turnaround work for their clients quickly. Their client, Origin was also satisfied, for getting their data sooner and in a suitable format.
For more information, please contact Dirk Craigie.